Why don’t perpetual motion machines ever work? – Netta Schramm

Why don’t perpetual motion machines ever work? – Netta Schramm


Around 1159 A.D., a mathematician called
Bhaskara the Learned sketched a design for a wheel
containing curved reservoirs of mercury. He reasoned that as the wheels spun, the mercury would flow to the bottom
of each reservoir, leaving one side of the wheel
perpetually heavier than the other. The imbalance would keep
the wheel turning forever. Bhaskara’s drawing was one of
the earliest designs for a perpetual motion machine, a device that can do work indefinitely
without any external energy source. Imagine a windmill that produced
the breeze it needed to keep rotating. Or a lightbulb whose glow provided
its own electricity. These devices have captured many
inventors’ imaginations because they could transform
our relationship with energy. For example, if you could build
a perpetual motion machine that included humans as part of its
perfectly efficient system, it could sustain life indefinitely. There’s just one problem. They don’t work. Ideas for perpetual motion machines all violate one or more
fundamental laws of thermodynamics, the branch of physics that describes
the relationship between different forms of energy. The first law of thermodynamics says
that energy can’t be created or destroyed. You can’t get out more energy
than you put in. That rules out a useful
perpetual motion machine right away because a machine could only ever
produce as much energy as it consumed. There wouldn’t be any left over
to power a car or charge a phone. But what if you just wanted the machine
to keep itself moving? Inventors have proposed plenty of ideas. Several of these have been variations
on Bhaskara’s over-balanced wheel with rolling balls
or weights on swinging arms. None of them work. The moving parts that make one
side of the wheel heavier also shift its center of mass downward
below the axle. With a low center of mass, the wheel just swings back and forth
like a pendulum, then stops. What about a different approach? In the 17th century, Robert Boyle
came up with an idea for a self-watering pot. He theorized that capillary action, the attraction
between liquids and surfaces that pulls water through thin tubes, might keep the water cycling
around the bowl. But if the capillary action is strong
enough to overcome gravity and draw the water up, it would also prevent it from falling
back into the bowl. Then there are versions with magnets,
like this set of ramps. The ball is supposed to be pulled
upwards by the magnet at the top, fall back down through the hole, and repeat the cycle. This one fails because like
the self-watering pot, the magnet would simply hold
the ball at the top. Even if it somehow did keep moving, the magnet’s strength
would degrade over time and eventually stop working. For each of these machines to keep moving, they’d have to create some extra energy to nudge the system
past its stopping point, breaking the first law of thermodynamics. There are ones that seem to keep going, but in reality, they invariably turn out
to be drawing energy from some external source. Even if engineers could
somehow design a machine that didn’t violate the first law
of thermodynamics, it still wouldn’t work in the real world
because of the second law. The second law of thermodynamics tells us that energy tends to spread out
through processes like friction. Any real machine would have moving parts or interactions with air
or liquid molecules that would generate tiny amounts
of friction and heat, even in a vacuum. That heat is energy escaping, and it would keep leeching out, reducing the energy available
to move the system itself until the machine inevitably stopped. So far, these two laws of thermodynamics have stymied every idea
for perpetual motion and the dreams of perfectly efficient
energy generation they imply. Yet it’s hard to conclusively say we’ll
never discover a perpetual motion machine because there’s still so much we don’t
understand about the universe. Perhaps we’ll find
new exotic forms of matter that’ll force us to revisit the laws
of thermodynamics. Or maybe there’s perpetual motion
on tiny quantum scales. What we can be reasonably sure about
is that we’ll never stop looking. For now, the one thing that seems
truly perpetual is our search.

100 Replies to “Why don’t perpetual motion machines ever work? – Netta Schramm”

  1. we cannot make perpetual machines by physical materials, even in bible says that everything that can be seen is temporary and the invisibles (air, gravity, digital signal, electricity) are perpetual
    (2 Corinthians 4:18)
    so it is imposible for us humans can make a perpetual machines that is an irrefutable pronouncement and prove of existence of God.

  2. KEEP MY NAME IN YOUR MINDS.
    BECAUSE I HAVE INVENTED A MACHINE THAT RUNS ON WATER AND GENERATES 5 KW OF ELECTRICITY WITHOUT HUMAN OR FUEL HELP.
    ))))))I HAVE PROVEN EINSTEIN WRONG (((((

  3. So your argument is that the law of thermodynamics is absolute , and like its step-cousin, gravity has no known variables? Well, as you should know, what we loosely define as 'gravity', is in fact "variable", and therefore is NOT a fixed law. There are many who are beginning to suggest that gravity may not be a 'force' at all, but more likely a 'field' that is electrostatic in nature. The exact nature of the effects of gravity, though not clearly understood, as well as the nature of over unity has been studied at Los Alamos National Laboratory by Dr. Victor Klimov and his team, and the results have produced patents for a nano crystalline "over unity" engine. (Which has the potential to produce over unity output at hundreds to thousands of times greater than input. Which is what you are talking about when discussing 'perpetual motion'. Over Unity has been achieved at Los Alamos, and patented. The list of scientists working on this issue is staggering. So your argument is both ill informed, and antiquated, like almost all of Newtonian Physics. It was a cute and quaint idea in its time, but its 400 plus years old, and as out of date as powdered wigs and witch trials. Over unity has been achieved, so do a little home work, and report onTHAT fact.

  4. Ok, got it. Next task then is to create a machine that is almost perpetual! Minimal effort from a human is okay, e.g. once a year.

  5. 3:20 the magnet machine could have a wedge type surface that would defect the ball drop. These are all really clever

  6. A device needs to get its energy from somewhere, at least according to logic. If you would like to see a really amazing device though, please click on the channel icon to the left. It doesn't violate any physics, and is verified to work.

  7. even without thermodynamics most of these wouldn't work for the same reason a bouncy ball doesn't bounce infinitely and the same reason an egg cracks when dropped rather than bouncing or whatnot – the only reason an egg does not crack when dropped on a soft object is not because it's "softer" but because it has more give and will compress rather than the egg compressing until cracking – this is the reason why a material such as Iron or wood that does not have as much give as foam or jello will end up hurting more than foam or jello when falling on it and even jello is quite hard after all falling on water from a height will hurt (like a belly flop) but jello will hurt even more while due to the air contained in it and the fact that it is a compressible material makes it softer – basically 1 falling in concrete makes you come to a sudden stop while foam does not and 2 foam is more compressible than concrete and so will take some of the burden of hitting an object in your place
    this means 3 however minuscule unless it is done in a complete vacuum air resistance along with vibrations from the machine will eventually slow it to a halt and even without that forces like gravity acting upon the machine will ruin it and even without gravity comes other problems that is for another day

    actually while thinking of possible perpetual motion designs I realized dark matter is probably not spread evenly throughout the universe because if it was rather than simply observing it waayy out in space we would notice more of it's effects on gravity here on earth and surely someone would have taken advantage of it to either improve energy efficiency or made it into a classroom demonstration like elephants toothpaste

  8. the only thing i can think of with water is you would need a pump to get the water up high and a wheel which gets electricity from the high speed of the water and another wheel which draws energy from the motion of the water going to the other wheel to get some extra electricity for the pump with maybe a large solar panel to help it keep going and have the ability to charge electrical devices though it would need a large battery of it's own becouse of it wouldn't really work without its own battery as it would still a way to store the electricity and a way to draw it too

  9. The most realistic way of creating a "perpetual" motion machine is to plug it to the power outlet and always pay the electric bill 😛

  10. The reason people want a perpetual motion machine is for practical purposes.

    So, make then a machine that leaks such small amount of energy that it’s practically not leaking at all. You would be able to use it for incredibly long periods of time before needing to refill its energy supply. Even though it’s mathematically not perpetual it would still be a phenomenal device

  11. When they call you a pessimist when you tell them that fusion will never be achived and is always 30 years away but then you hit'em with that 1st law of thermodynamics till they start crying logic and reason.

  12. Everyone that has ever commented on this video needs to look up a substance called graphene graphene might be the key to breaking all of this

  13. We all live on a perpetual motion machine its called Earth it spins on its axes and it spins around the sun right so it is perpetual if it stops we all die end of the story.

  14. Please check a recent experiment for an at-least tentative exception: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=17&v=aMihSRllvZY

  15. I have a doubt..since these baskara wheels seems to spin for a relatively longer time than the normal wheel.. can we incorprate this perceptual motion in wind mill tech…

  16. This is propaganda by the Edison corporation because they want to keep people paying for energy like the greedy capitalists they are. This is like when Tesla was put down a gutter.

  17. perpetual motion doesnt exist because energy is borrowed and then payed back minus a tiny amount of energy. Eventually, you'll be left with a balance of 0. Entropy. Its so the simulation doesnt get memory leaks while keeping the servers optimized. I dunno. I'm really high.

  18. Ok, but what if there was an imperfect perpetual motion machine? Like it powers a lot of it's own energy, but every once and a while someone has to just give it a little push to keep it going? Would that be a more efficient use of energy? Are people already doing that and I'm just now figuring out something someone has already found out? Is there something I don't know that would keep this from working?

  19. There is only one place in all of Gods creation,where this will work.Boots void.An area of space where there is nothing.There,an object in motion will stay in motion because there will be no outside forces acting on it.

  20. LOL – there is NO isolated system anywhere!!! So – perpetual machines are possible – but oil companies that sponsored TED don't want free energy for the wold!!!

  21. YUPYUPYUPYUPYUPYUPYUPYUP
    YUPYUPYUP YUPYUPYUP
    YUPYUPYUP YUPYUPYUP
    YUPYUPYUP YUPYUPYUP
    YUPYUPYUPYUPYUPYUPYUPYUPY

    YUPYUPYUPYUP
    YUPYUPYUPYUP YUPYUP
    YUPYUPYUPYUP YUPYUP
    YUPYUPYUPYUP YUPYUP
    YUPYUPYUPYUPYUPYUP
    YUPYUPYUPYUPYUPYUP
    YUPYUPYUPYUP YUPYUP
    YUPYUPYUPYUP YUPYUP
    YUPYUPYUPYUP YUPYUP
    YUPYUPYUPYUP

  22. I think many people get perpetual motion confused with high efficiency. You can recover a lot of lost energy and reuse it; for example, hybrid cars use regenerative braking to recharge their batteries. But, ultimately, you won't be able to achieve 100% efficiency, and that's why perpetual motion cannot exist.

  23. what about the sun ? isnt that the evaporator? so evaporate the water and it hits the ceiling and the water drops down the dome. right?

  24. I saw this video 2 years ago. I only understood a fraction of it. Now I understand most of it. I'm actually proud of my personal improvement.

  25. There is 1 perpetual energy that realy works, and thats is by using steam engine as a flat form, remember steam engine technology is very powerful during its time, before the invention of the combustion engine and the discovery of oil.steam engine is the bsic form of power to transport heavy loads, locomotive steam engine for example. It is powerful that even it carries the whole system, the water in the boiler, the wood or coal to use as fuel, the connecting cars that carries all the heavy loads not to mention car it self that made of still, that heavy also and several wheels that create the friction down the tracks. The total weight of the whole system that pushing down the wheel against the track. But still the steam engine manage to run faster than a horse and climb uphill routh from point A to point B. This energy is so powerful that it can turn two small power generator, 1 for the load and the other 1 for the steam engine to keep it running. Now remember in this idea there are no cars , fuel, water to be pulled and no tracks, only steam engine, flywheel , gearbox and 2 small power generator. You cant say that it wont work, because it has only small amount of friction it creates compare to the whole system of locomotive steam engine, you dont have to be a rocket scientest to analyze this idea its already been prove before. If you still dont agree with this idea, you are paid by the big oil company to block any clean energy that can compromise their billion busainess. I can show you how this idea works.

  26. Thinking about perpetual motion machines is good for the brain though. The creativity is what matters. Yes, it seems impossible to create power and sustain power. But making systems more efficient is very possible. Think regenerative braking or attaching Peltier devices with heat syncs to an electric oven to capture its heat energy….

  27. God simulator v.1.12

    Earth update : bugs with perpetual motion machines have been asked about, added THERMODYNAMICS_LAW.EXE to stop the physics of this machine

  28. Perpetual motion doesn't exist, yes it does I eat, have enough energy to go to sleep than with that energy, I have enough to eat then repeat (as a joke)!

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