Speed Control of DC Motor – DC Motor Speed control

Speed Control of DC Motor – DC Motor Speed control


Speed control methods of a DC motor can be
varied by varying flux, armature resistance or applied voltage. Different speed control
methods for different DC shunt and series methods are there.
We also know, DC motor is an electrical machine that converts direct current electrical energy
into mechanical energy. When the current carrying armature is connected to the supply end though
commentator segment, brushes are placed within the North South Poles of permanent or electromagnets.
By using these electromagnets operating principle is depends on the Fleming’s left hand rule
to determine the direction of the force acting on the armature conductors of the DC motor.
In this video we will go to learn different speed control methods of dc motor. Speed of DC shunt motor is controlled methods
by the stated below. 1. Flux control method.
2. Armature and Rheostatic control method. 3. Voltage control method.
Voltage control methods are two types. a. Multiple voltage control.
b. Ward Leonard system. Flux Control Method.
In this method, speed of a dc motor is inversely proportional to the flux per pole. Thus, by
decreasing flux and speed can be increased vice versa. To control the flux , he rheostat
is added in series with the field winding will increase the speed , because of this
flux will decrease. So, the field current is relatively small and hence copper loss
is decreased. This method is quite efficient. Armature and Rheostatic control method. Speed of a dc motor is directly proportional
to the back E M F. That means, when the supply voltage V and the armature resistance Ra are
kept constant, speed is directly proportional to the armature current Ia. Thus, if we add
a resistance in series with the armature, Ia decreases and, hence, the speed also decreases.
Greater the resistance in series with the armature, greater the decrease in speed. Multiple voltage control. In this method, the shunt field is connected
to a fixed exciting voltage and armature is supplied with different voltages. Voltage
across armature is changed with the help of a suitable switchgear. The speed is approximately
proportional to the voltage across the armature. Ward Leonard system. This Ward – leonard system is used where very
sensitive speed control of the motor is required (e.g electric excavators, elevators, etc.).
The arrangement of this system is as required in this figure. In this method, the output from the generator
G is fed to the armature of the motor M2 whose speed is to be controlled. The output voltage
of the generator G can be varied from zero to its maximum value by means of its field
regulator and, hence, the armature voltage of the motor M2 is varied very smoothly. Hence,
very smooth speed control of the dc motor can be obtained by this method. Speed of DC Series motor is controlled methods
by the stated below. a. Flux control method.
Flux control methods are four types. 1. Field diverter.
2. Armature diverter. 3. Trapped field control.
4. Paralleling field coils. b. Variable Resistance in series with armature.
c. Series -parallel control method. Field diverter.
A veritable resistance is connected parallel to the series field. This variable resistor
is called as diverter, as the desired amount of current can be diverted through this resistor
and hence current through field coil can be decreased. Hence, flux can be decreased to
the desired amount and speed can be increased. Armature diverter. Diverter or Rheostat is connected across the
armature. For a given constant load torque, if armature
current is reduced then flux must increase. This will result in an increase in current
taken from the supply and hence flux will increase and subsequently speed of the motor
will decrease. Tapped field control. As shown in figure, the field coil is tapped
dividing number of turns. Thus we can select different value of flux by selecting different
number of turns. Paralleling field coils.
In this method, several speeds can be obtained by regrouping coils as shown figure is below.
. Variable Resistance In Series With armature.
By introducing a resistance in series with the armature, voltage across the armature
can be reduced. And, hence, speed reduces in proportion with it. Series Parallel Control.
This system is widely used in electric traction, where two or more mechanically coupled series
motors are employed. For low speeds, the motors are connected in series, and for higher speeds
the motors are connected in parallel. When in series, the motors have the same current
passing through them, although voltage across each motor is divided. When in parallel, the
voltage across each motor is same although the current gets divided. Dear viewers Thanks for watching the video,
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14 Replies to “Speed Control of DC Motor – DC Motor Speed control”

  1. I saw in Alstom's rare GEC trains, the DC motor armature winding's current Variated by thyristors under the communicating frequency: 300HZ

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