Presentation of ASE Trainer (Hybrid and Electric Vehicle) by Lucas-Nülle

Presentation of ASE Trainer (Hybrid and Electric Vehicle) by Lucas-Nülle


[Music] okay so you start the presentation today we’re going to look at some of the thing that you can do teaching hiring electric vehicles in the class so you know that this is carrying out either in high school or the community college level some of the various things that you need to look at we’ve got some of the some of the main topics that we need to look at there’s different standards around the world but of course the what you need to look at on all these vehicles is basically the same thing so we’re going to cover some of the safety topics various topics within the battery drive systems so looking at birds motors and various things there we’ve got some of the various standards here so we’ll have a look at say for instance a s el3 standards if you have a look at these there’s a very high standard put on that safety and also as system understanding and also some of the main Colts that we find within higher electric vehicles as well that need to test also insulation testing and especially shutting down the vehicle so we’ll be going through that today and show you what we can do together with some of the equipment you can have in the classroom model so what you can have for instance with the spacer arguments or whether oh god okay okay so thank you right back to some of the basics the fundamentals so what type of vehicles do we see how as hybrid electric vehicles so of course basically all forms of transport now are becoming electrified or some happen for a long time now but you see that more and more manufacturers are becoming electrified you see some of the countries is making making making use a lot announcer in Norway they say within 20-25 early all business must be electric or barring diesel in some other countries France will say 2040 they’re shutting down combustion engines far away from 2019 will be only producing electric vehicles so it’s when they say they’re learning to produce electric heaters or new models of the electrics be continuing the combustion engines but when it’s time for model up read-only electric vehicles so the status is becoming more and more common it’s we’re not going back it will be becoming a little fire so it’s important that we as teachers and instructors know what we can do to teach the next generation of technicians to come through so that they can one be safe but also to help diagnose and repair vehicles without wasting too much time so you see all the different types of vehicles now one of the more important things how do we recognize these vehicles as well so it’s not just a matter of okay understanding knowing I played Chris it’s pretty obvious they’re all illiterate and then all have electric motor a high voltage also have a much of course however we recognize some of the other ones where you have a combustion engine and also a electrified version which is also becoming more popular now so they’re often what you see within a lot of the manufactures they’ll have to bleed what’s known as the blue badging so just when you’ve got the the normal badge so a prince from the Toyota inside the winters blue glow collectors both playing a lot of the manufacturers is it’s not standards but an industry standard but if you want a low manufacture so that’s one of the first ways to identify these views obviously then trying to look for any specific badging a hybrid vehicle we’ve written on there or zero emissions that sort of things they try and find that also in place when you’ve got the pure electric vehicle where what looks like the fuel filler cap will be a session for plugging in the vehicle the instrument display is also a good example of how you can identify the vehicle so by these users have a battery indicator or security hair difference every people need to impart to be some sort of way of recognizing that and of course when you’ve got literate vehicle you might just see that there is no exhaust pipes so again pure electric vehicle not going work on a hybrid vehicle within the vehicles themselves so much your open the hood or the trunk look under the seats you might begin to see some of the various other symbols that we see here so again manufacturers 10 header own type of markings or stickers that you see but any of my body components will be having the caution attention some sort of system that say that hypothesis especially with the triangle with the lightning bolt that’s on the main components themselves so on a battery on the inverter you see it on the hood there will be different areas like that so somewhere that’s visible now of course and we’ve got so many other sessions will be seeing orange cables or orange coverings so inside the vehicle you can see orange covering which we’ve been covering the orange cables but you’ll see that in various different points as well so even if we have a look at this Prince under need to see even though the the battery in the back of the vehicle itself there’s little sections where you’re fine and handling your accuracy that’s also the level shadows down to the front leg obviously anything orange is then high-voltage another thing about electrified vehicles is the ready life and how that is shown on the various vehicles so red light most of you know to it it is red light loves you very much you also have this year which is the little vehicle with the arrows coming up now that’s equivalent to key on engine running so if the vehicle is literally raised right so you see with the ignition displayed here that you can also have if you don’t press the brake pedal when you press the ignition on you get the condition key on engine off and so the vehicle is obviously an operated but all of the lights will be on on the people when the vehicle is is ready then of course you need to be kept be aware very important when you’re servicing so the combustion engine can start straightaway when the battery level is loading so that’s happened many times in the workshop where the technician has driven the vehicle in because the engine is not running they parked the car and then all of a sudden the the vehicle the combustion engine starts when they’re not ready when the battery level gets low the combustion engine will start trying to charge up the battery and so it makes me very few obviously the old urban story of the Prius technician driven to their convoys put the vehicle in Mediterranean world from the engine and all the sudden engine started and started with our world so vehicle stuff Iran was very important issues to understand mapping be aware of the situation listen preference uses the other type of reading light a little vehicle so just be aware of the different types some of the classifications of different people so very difficult to standardize so to say the various types of special hybrid vehicles electric vehicles really electric vehicle is there is no difference then they all have a battery and usually one motor or if you’ve got normos all cars are people that we almost as for instance but most members will have the mpg just to drive the vehicle when it comes to hiring people that’s another story some manufacturers will call their vehicles with a combustion engine they’ll pull an electic with an range extender sir BMW i3 even the Chevy bolt that will consider that the General Motors consider that an electric vehicle with the range extender for instance so there’s so many different types of hybrid vehicles available now how they work in conjunction with countries gear sets or hesitates on boost higher function for the combustion engine so there’s different types of what we call here’s a type one is very similar to the Prius so we’ve got integrated combustion engine engine one which is purely as generation so it’s not used to driving anything the only fun is using the drivers starter motor for the internal combustion engine that’s all all of the drivers then consider coming to MD to the Indies is always operating to drive the vehicle type 2 hybrid now again this is different countries different people different manufacturers of course apply to this could be called a parallel hybrid the one before before a series parallel for themselves in series parallel this time here is your is like the Honda I am a type system so the motor generator is acting as a booster for the internal combustion engine again different types back with inside this so this could be a clutch inside of the system which separates the the motor generator on the certain mechanisms that you can try out with one or the other and then you’ve got what’s called the top three and this is now working the clutches in the 20s so that it can also be separated the way that they turn on zone on which direction flow the the the energy is going through that’s another type of the system there you’ve also got fuel silicate vehicles [Music] obviously pure electric vehicles built alternative service systems are also also included as a micro hybrid some people like the color sometimes they’re running 48 volts now that doesn’t use the iron tables I can do it my hybrid people you often see the yellow cables for that sometimes blue cables 48 volts you can see that that will become more popular as well even as the drive motor in vehicle so that’s the next development for vehicles is releasing four year bolts on course of environments they’re not just on the belt alternator starter it will also be more along the lines of this year you’ll see a 48 volt drive motor helping the combustion engine the reason that they’re using four-year-olds is one is now looking at a a larger 12-volt system but the threshold for high voltage is sixty bulb so we’re saying well under the 60 volt system so not being high wattage for easy so we’re saying under that hood is it’s safe so looking at those in just a little bit more detail back at alternative system other work so emphasis on using some of the different names it might be familiar with for some of the different manufacturers now what we see here is also something interesting is the battery size battery type and the battery size will change according to the type of vehicle that you have type of hybrid related by vehicle ADC so here we’ve got the mild hybrid or the type two and the battery will be usually a bit smaller sometimes legal metal hydride assume of the medium hybrid here is what we’re calling with either clutching between the two they’re so similar to type two but when they’re clutch we can separate the two the strong hybrid or the type one prasad it’s actually also using a relatively small battery so what’s quite surprising about about these the prius is you’re only going to get up to two kilometers so that 500 two miles to the four miles range on pure electric mode it’s not really designed for driving electric motors designed for having two battery the battery then as a basically an accumulator which absorbs energy from regenerative braking but basically the linear behind it creates is not for driving for hundreds of miles an electric try to expect is the large alone a live-action competitor or both very large and that it will accept the regenerative braking and then basically helping the the combustion engine our line see the difference here with the electric vehicle the battery has me must be a say in a lot of these names the battery will be better than the whole floor of the vehicle I think most will be familiar with the size of the battery in the Prius or if we have a look here this is the battery case from any q5 so I’m how if you buy so it’s not big it’s but as I said it’s not there to take hundreds of kilowatts or loads of energy is just there to basically take the reject apart from the regenerative brain a fuel additive vehicle the only way you can energize these vehicles is by plugging it in so they need everything to any only way they’re recruiting is through regenerative braking or driving beyond fuel now somewhere between those two is becoming bit more popular is plug-in hybrids and the batteries are notes now going also to lithium-ion so you see that they’re not quite as big as a full electric vehicle but they’re bigger than your typical hybrid so the range of noise now will be 40 50 miles up to a 500 kilometers and so they’re utilizing a little bit more of the plug-in so using the network to drive the people nice and much more efficient most people driving their 20 miles to work or even if you go 250 miles if you can achieve that in one there isn’t just from planning it into the power that you say or do basically motion engine is not so vital now if you have a look at say for instance a driving moment of the typical pirate so how were the three integrated so here we are we’ve got ready on and just under gentle acceleration see that the the electric motor comes on then as we need more power using more power from the battery but also the combustion engine is is on as well I’ll just get it out here so as we get it begin to break also we don’t need the machines right now but we’re using the monitor generator as a break I’m going to that into a little bit more detail on how that works later but basically under the first breaking the vehicle use the motor generator completely to slow down as we go further if it becomes an emergency braking situation we’re not using the motor generator anymore loop switch over to the hybrid hydraulic braking system so that depends also on various things hydraulic braking can occur when the batteries fall so the battery is for the system will say hello we can’t generators no where’s this energy to go so we’ll switch the hydraulic braking obviously immediately and in that way now you just have a look at some of the various side of moments so what would first year this training system is when I’m trying to replace the vehicle in the workshop that we’re trying to presently give the student place to the practice and create a culture safety but before she goes to work on a real vehicle so let me know some of these deities can be quite dangerous so we want their students to learn as much as possible before they go on to the real vehicle so this is going to help on one side for the viewers instructor to say okay I don’t know confidence you can shut down the vehicle isolate make sure there’s no already slept in the vehicle before a webinar you can make sure what they form a procedure before the armored vehicle but also it helps you know ways of bringing across the technology what is the emergency vehicles what’s inside how do they operate and that’s something that can be difficult on a real vehicle so it’s one thing having a Toyota missing leaf Chevy for all those different vehicles but what’s inside without really pulling them apart looking inside can be quite difficult so so again quite difficult damage the maximal as measurements on a real vehicle so this just gives us the chance to gives the students a chance to look inside see how they operate in a safe way then they said into the the real-world workshopping work on these vehicles what the charity is doing is to simulate various types of people’s so Tristan’s have gone down inside here so obviously we can’t do every type of people now but we’ve broken down into the serious hybrid which is type of range extender so a series you see what I’ve done here is I’ve basically change that overlay mask which has a difference of holes here so by doing that napkins with the different type of vehicle that this displays here so I’m showing here an electric vehicle obviously now we don’t have any motor generator one and even Russian engine so just showing that on the system here Oh so I can look at a metric vehicle as I mentioned there’s only two things that we can do it here so we’ve got I let you drive all regenerative braking energy recuperation if we go to the series parallel or the type one hybrid which is the priestly function gear set now we’ve got lots of different modes that can occur in this vehicle so just try them on pure electric mode you can see the energy plug straight from the battery into the dryer system also possible for through the financial year set further combustion engines ooh part of the charge the battery but also use some of its caliber to help drive the vehicle as well something that will induce years to change the same types of the battery and see what conditions come on the the combustion engine will come on and operate so this gear is students just the chance to to look through and see okay what’s actually happening so just visualize what’s going on what the power flow is now of course every manufacturer is slightly trying to change the way they do it trying to outsmart patents that type of thing but this is the general idea the technology among these vehicles is basically the same way a motor is driven the same for electric vehicle as it is for a hybrid vehicle so the technology is basically the same high voltage batteries their inverter needs to be there the type of motor is also there even if it’s a induction motor or a permanent magnet motor the invar so basically works the same way so all of the different types of hybrids are shown here so we’ve also got this the schematic so basically just showing the two main the very basic out level harder people so could finally factory right here this section here is looking to DZ so to say look at the inverter right here this is where the DC voltage comes in is then converted to AC voltage ng1 ng2 for a series parallel and you can see okay what’s the equivalent there either ng1 ng2 twelve volt system is also charged from the high voltage system and also some important notes there so we’ve got what’s called back boost converter now that I just jumped out here so it’s a this is some of the typical voltages that you find within various hybrid vehicles or electric vehicles and you can see here we’ve got actually voltage so that’s the traction battery you see a lot of manufacturers would use the same voltage and battery as they do at the monitor the exceptions here are usually twelve left his vehicle solo use a buck boost converter so then increases the voltage from the battery so anywhere from around 300 volts almost 300 volts and you’ll see the voltage will increase up to up to second MVP almost 700 volts and that’s not always the case it’s not exactly 600 it’s very in between also a little detail better as well so that there is what we call the buck boost converter that can be burning the voltage up or down so in one direction from the battery obviously up to the motor but when the voltage is coming back with the current swimming backwards that needs to drop it or just down again to charge the battery obviously if we have 700 volts on two hundred volt battery that will probably ruin today now when we get back to this wiring diagram with the 3d z2d converted that you see here the top one year is especially for the high voltage high voltage coming in from the battery and then this is then higher voice for the traction motors or certain attraction mode that for the lower system here this is to basically replace our or fair and is user charging system now this isn’t very important that the two completely different systems this one needs to be what’s called galvanically isolated so it’s completely isolated there is no touching part using a transformer within the system which is then basically wirelessly charging the is widely converting a voltage to normal for 10.16 valves to charge the 12-volt battery very important so that way we have also hired isolating this high voltage system get another system for safety within the vehicle the AC compressor is also high voltage again some of the older systems will the three volt system coming from the inverter what we call the inverter in the vehicle the to the engine whiny to most of the system now are using a DC and the inverter is inside of the air compressed and the air compressor itself and course with electric vehicles and hiring vehicles we’ve got the charging port so you see they’re broken up into an AC system and a DC system within of the various parts of people say again if I had to look now an electric vehicle basically we take away one of the motor generators and we’re just using here to the rest of the system is exactly the same this type of wire wiring diagram of course everything will be different but the web works will be always the same even with a fuel cell vehicle so if your cell vehicle where they work obviously we’re goes into a little bit more detail of it time for another seminar but just quickly I remember back in the day when I was a young apprentice always got our hydrogen people is just burning hydrogen but of course not it’s using a speaking membrane which parts hydrogen through the membrane and basically restricts the electrons often to them use the charger battery and drive the motor just like a normal electric vehicle so they’re working on direct drive hybrid hydrogen vehicles but mainly it’s about charging the battery which then the vehicle price as a normal vehicle now for integrating this into the classroom it’s always important that we then take the knowledge that we’ve learned here into the real world so I always recommend these practical tasks so I’m hoping to have these as a hand-up available for you but basically get the students see so this one here we’re getting students to identify some of the components so if you’re able to have an electric vehicle in your school on hybrid vehicle you get students to go and have a look and just identify so again this right into the basics okay where is the battery where is the inverter mp1 MDC charging interface that’s what I’m just getting thinking about the types of vehicles that they’re working on now we have a look at electric vehicles this is your extra thing there that you find on electric vehicles that you want to find on a hybrid vehicle you may find on a hybrid vehicle depending on the time but for instance where is the the heating unit this one here because it’s an electric vehicle there’s no combustion engine to heat up the coolant in a conventional way in Cavan so y’all can have a high voyage heating unit library system to a large exist it would send each other cool and used in the conventional way so sometimes they’re hidden in front of the vehicle with engine would normally be so things like that could students looking around also what I like to do when I’m teaching is get used to really think about the vehicles themselves so I’ve made these handouts which shown again if you put your name down your email address or email is out here and you can give this to your class or group of students at a time and just get them to look at vehicle and say okay so service flow we were to find that sort of thing this one here is it the brake booster this is one of my favorites they go to a Prius and are some students are kept on the brake booster on Prius there is no practices so it’s using one side of the motor generator to slow the vehicle down on the other side it’s using that ABS system if there isn’t any braking it with user ABS systems slow the vehicle down so the motor and the pump inside a hydraulic system things like this you can get to put the configuration down okay mt1 our split device mgc they just laid it out on the for instance on the vehicle itself think about how the system is built water coming to the inverter so there’s a whole bunch of these noble said if you put name down I’ll leave others out they come in a sheet of paper you can laminate cut in half and where you go okay now all of the different type of standards been teaching to electric vehicles around the world that all focus on safety so safety is one of the biggest considerations obviously when we’re looking at linear differences there’s no room for error so as we’ve seen before we looking up to 700 volts it’s just best to do things correctly now one of the important things to learn is the isolation procedure so shutting the vehicle down before you work on obviously it’s also good to understand why do you need to shut down a vehicle shut down the high voltage system what jobs do you need to do that hang by that Choni on the braking system as well so before servicing in now what we’re doing here is basically as I said before we’re creating a calculator trying to get the students to really think about what they’re doing before they go to the real car so one of the things take off any jewelry things like that now we’re just going to shut down the vehicle also got the key it’s also a different thing they can get their circular a lock box that we can use I even put the key into your pocket but it’s important that you follow the rules either the manufacturer or where your work it’s very important so showing you have a meeting first thing in the key if it’s a smart key so either you keep in your pocket I’m gonna depress funny that B needs to be put away about 5 meters or do you think they they’re about the lockbox something that you can lock up so no one can have access I’ve only have little stories where people have shut down in vehicle but they let the key in working on the vehicle some rocks all sudden comes in trust move the car didn’t see the person the technician working on start of the vehicle and almost a disaster but yeah it really needs to be careful when you also need to be aware of what our safety gear so if you go through some of the different PE so your gloves gloves will be depending on where you are around the world so for the American standards we’ve got the class OD type products and they’re read up to 1000 volts what you also notice withi and it’s particular to the US is you’ve got the leather over life as well really radius or letter O blood I want you on top and protect the the rubber gloves so obviously they’re very relatively fragile of so you catch them on a sharp edge you can really damage them quite quickly gloves need to be stamped on them as well so up here on the edge will tell you one had been tested if they ask everything is on there this mental they are today now there’s various ways of testing these gloves as well so look here you can get some special little pump for putting them up in an emergency you can always do the all trip the field servicing blow the back or roll or not like this what found however is we’ve done some testing with the pump type of system at DiMaggio once we’ve done that we’ve actually put a little pinprick into this type of plus under pressure and it takes a good five minutes before you see the glove will actually go down it’s all asleep ending on the side but that is a pin has gone truly love and very small hole so it’s not just a matter of checking holding for two seconds or something you really need to make sure this hold on for a little while and make sure that those gloves are okay obviously please get them sent out to the to the laboratories to do the testing whenever when they’re due it always makes sense to have a few editors in the workshop spread let’s boom have plenty of these around because one thing it sends out that take a little while to get tested now these are also when it’s tested into the larger that bit hand made copper that goes in Cyprus and that test with high wattage around and seeing busy leakage in that in that way so we want to take five that was for condition plus also to make sure that they’re in days also depending on who you work for where you are you might also be requires where either a face mask or at least safety glasses and they the Andy to the US different standards environment for different countries around world if you’re wearing oils also important actually don’t oppress dozen and there’s no mental with internet for zips or in that alleges belt barrels or material even a safety Footwear so we’re used to wearing still cat boots to be aware if you might have to use some slurred synthetic material or even overshoots that only includes some manufacturers that make you have a shape check it for five last poll also to our if anyone is a little computer and hanging onto the vehicle you might need to use the fiberglass called poles pull them on again depending on where you are and what’s additive following you might need to have a lockout tags or lockout box now a lot of our box works in the way that the key to the padlock and you seem to love our box here that’s what that padlock belongs to you the key has your name of the paddle federal name on it and only you are allowed to take it so you put the components inside of the box that are necessary for the vehicle run like the key or the service flow if that’s not possible you can also have this type of tag so disable shows over a very obvious place so that anyone really has to be stupid to start the vehicle it says on there quite please don’t touch as people also amok require they had a buffer zone around the vehicle so we have cones around the vehicle so that it’s quite clear stay away and also you’ve got the caution of my voltage go to touch so pretty out here fold it up and stick it on top of the vehicle again different countries have different requirements and different types of science might see that but put that in very serious on front of steering wheel on top of the vehicle young people is not just protect yourself it to protect others as well when it comes to some of the other components as well we want to make sure our equipment its category tree rated so that would be usually on the back of any of the equipment that we have fact for the front but that’s the minimum standard that you need for any type of community equipment so you might see what is setup like this might have you multimeters insulation testers all those entity in the room to catch shredder now insulation tester public that we’re not usually useful used to in the automotive industry so insulation tester is something that can give us a thousand volts so across the two terminal VDC is the what looks like a normal multimeter we can use it as a multimeter but we can also give out a thousand volts here at the measuring terminals and that will actually break down any of the problem that we might see any insulation for the motors for the cabins for the motor so so if I just show you on screen see you are their names so this is just showing a normal Oh mayor to one of the cables to one of the thousands on the electric motor to ground and you see that it doesn’t affect it at all now if you change that to one thousand volts to never be one thousand volts through those caves and at that point the candles are breaking down really though a bit of it insulation that has a pinhole or it’s been damaged in some way that wants to be put under that sort of stress then you see the problem – Graham so I’m gonna show you that that an example what we would do that so so our persistent you have got some bolts that I can bring into the system sort of means to this year but driving along and we get an insulation system when shut down so any on various types again where most manufacturers have slightly different variations on the weather shutdown procedure works if you’re driving along when people will not just stop on you sometimes depending on the severity of the fault you will have a chance of the triangle of death will come up saying okay pull over or go straight to one service sometimes if you watch employer and stop the vehicle you can’t start again sometimes you can so again every manufacturer will be different but what we’re showing here is a very highly volatile vehicle is not shut down they are what we can do here is I can sell them here imagine resistance is too low so what would be doing this situation that’s just the bulb session now getting student to have some sort of procedure what they’re doing for shutting down the vehicle how to test to this this fault and have some sort of diagnostic strategy so human chance there okay read the default approach here what do we do now okay so we need to shut down the vehicle of course this procedure that I was going to do so show you how to vehicle either keep the key vector on the ground keep the key you know what that box or in your pocket so once a some more students it’s your life it’s your responsibility so keep there again smart key this people away from the vehicle now we need to test out of us so we’re checking the same checking the if they’re all here now we also need to do what’s called the live dead live test so that’s when we get our multimeter and we’re going to check to make sure their multimeter is actually working because if quality obviously to the fuses blown or something editor said zero volts and we actually got one we check the high voltage connection and it says zero volts but it might apply the two hundred volts and a battery voltage but due to a faulty multimeter we’ve just got a false positive or false negative rather so very first thing with a room a key and we want to check the same type of whole teacher human using DC will be testing DT my body for the initial testing PC years of birth or olfactory and that’s thrown up works good okay so I’ve tested my gloves put them on if you’ve got that lob was put those on as well unfortunately this is too small for my hand but you get that able to put them on we’ve taken the issue care now we can go on and find the service plug and we can disconnect the service like as well again if you’ve got a lockout box goes into the lockout box or goes into your pocket somewhere so many factions that tell you to insulate the the connected level of evil as well to get some insulation tape and wrap around it so to you up to what you’re required to do now on every vehicle there will be a measuring point where you can go home and measure a connection so this year is simulating inside the inverter where we can disconnect the cover outside this code is a it’s a Locksley if you were to disconnect this carbon shut down but due to the large capacitors inside the vehicle it takes it can take some time to shut down so we need to go on and measure they’ve met this I’ve got two cases here coming from the high voltage battery and right there is now zero volts so the time of slavery sort of shut down the ignition those capacitors are discharged there is zero volts right here now I know quite ready yet I need to go back to a live deadline so I’m going to go back to my factory 12 volt battery and check to make sure all of them measured class is still working I didn’t blow up measuring high voltages and yeah I confirm that inspector II now this measuring device and works at this point now I’m satisfied that the vehicle shut down fully isolated and I can now remove the glass okay obviously at this point my body’s factory still contains high voltage but the rest of the vehicle is safe now going back to that installation part so to show you the difference what actually happens we shared an animation but you can actually have a look here and see what happened so here I’m measuring across the various pages of a motor but here’s one [Music] and that may change our captain orders fall within this system so what are these doing here let me change that to 1 KB when I press test here now we’re actually putting 1,000 volts into the system and you see now the system come up with found out me so now of course that has been hard on a real team you need to remove all of the cables individually you can test each of the cables testing motor although this is just getting students used to using this type of equipment showing how it works as over that point we said ok yeah you’ve got that teacher and come on move the fog and then we need to put the vehicle back so let’s go back on once we’re going to connect it back in the pallet backbone we can go back in now reset of course you drive people to resist okay so if we have a little bit more looking detail some of the technology so various banking systems we’ve all heard about some of the vehicle there’s a lot of worry up there about lithium batteries there’s a condition called thermal runaway so thermal runaway is a basically a vicious circle once a lithium battery can once it heats up causes kind of chemical reaction which causes further heating and that builds upon itself and to a point where the back international fashion wire that has so much energy inside that they can catch on fire now most manufacturers the chemistry the battery chemistry is changed with more stable elements of the national fires often but it had happened in the past so you see that year with this mobile phone battery to subset and also catches on fire most of us taken care of now they take great detail and making sure that these batteries are protected physically from damage but also protected from heating up too much lots of cooling occurring on the metrics sometimes even heated as well very types of inspectors so you see he is a prismatic so this is what you find in the 2a systems anything metal hydride and the important thing here is that the the batteries each of those cells are connected in series and so that they were upon themselves so each cell works on on one another and that’s how we get the voltage so from each of those little metal hybrid cells at one point 2 volts each one of the modules has it cells 28 one was living at 201 point 6 volts depending on the position type of battery life difference more cells less cells or modules less modules but important to know is the way they work though this flood as we see here is actually disconnecting the battery so not only disconnecting the battery from the rest of the vehicle its disconnecting the battery into two separate pieces as well you can see that right here that these three cables go often service disconnect and when we disconnect the cable roughly disconnecting the battery engine to complete different part so we’re also dropping the voltage of the battery down and even lower lower voltage making it safer again okay so some of the different types of batteries that you’ve seen hybrid and legend people’s now is for instance the round cell so this is very similar to a d-cell construction so it’s you under and basically exactly the same size and these are then welded together sticks of four five or six sighs and then there happens either that’s then called the marginal and then they on to the complete battery pack as well and voltages up to three hundred volts for instance all in series am you see Tesla doing something slightly different with the systems and now they’re running in series and parallel so they’re using a much smaller battery for they’re adding 650 they’ve also upgraded out to the 2170 batteries of every first inside of the bathroom millimeters but you can see that the battery here is now much smaller but there’s thousands of them so in each of these modules here so we’ve got four hundred modules in there with up to fourteen miles in each of these battery packs so there can be up to 7,000 of the individual athlete cells also got the capsules was so the power cell is also a battery pack so again depending on the chemistry involved but we’ve got these of up to four volts 3 point 5 volts or there abouts again Apache cell battery module and then to get it into the backpack so this year our fourth in series and parallel so if you capacity and to increase voltage here we see a shearing pole and that’s also using a self couch cell this cells are then built in together into these modules and what and Muslims here that they had cooling fins as well so as I’m sure coolant running through various pouches inside so nothing so that power cell but next to these cells is a cooling chamber which allows some cords run to recording elevations and these cells actually build up because they’re still there’s not event on these actually can expand when they get a little bit older some of the built-in protection that we see within the various types of batteries AEC inside of service flow you can pull the photo pot and inside that plug you see the fuse so that’s one of the area’s we’ve got some protection we’ve also got the interlock there if you look on the Tesla version we actually seeing that there’s tiny little pieces on every single one of these cells nicely wire bonding so there’s a shorter defend yourself that will just blow that one fuse so and because there’s so many in series and parallel I haven’t one of the dropped out we will drop as deep up in one crop complete voltage of there abouts battery managing system is very there’s lots of different types of things they’re being tested in the battery at the same time so steady charge is something that’s very important for the vehicle so you see here one of the main differences between your normal battery let me see here we’ve got the disunity workshop compared to a battery found other people so you see here the batteries can be flattened completely and then charged beginning so either completely flaming what we see in electric vehicle is like just go back there again we’re operating in a very narrow band so when I’m completely using the capacity of the battery nor say to fully charge the fully discharged operating in a very narrow band roughly between 50% to 80% again every bit might be slightly different but that’s ensure that the battery is not being overcharged or under charged or discharged which is going to bread it back to service life of that battery so this is what many batteries are doing to keep the patient lasting for 10 years or more so some of the difference systems are being tested within these batteries we need to test the voltage so you’ll see 14 multi sense wires on various cells or modules again most manufacturers will be slightly different in this case it’s just a simple wire just going back to the battery management system we also get a current sensor so current sensors can either be a shunt light or there can be a hole type of current sensor so as you can see right here is one of the current sensors you’ve basically got a cable or the conductor going through the climate sensor itself and if you may pick up through the magnetic you can pick up the amount of current that’s flowing through there temperature sensors also very important we said obviously the best temperature management one of the important things as well is showing off the high water system so how do we just make a high body system from the rest of the vehicle so we’ve got the high voltage discount relays sometimes called contactors sometimes called system memory layers as well so very important system there’s sometimes to realize sometimes three relays the important thing tonight we’ve got here when are they open and when they close very specific to show you this year so this is the the relays right here in this case here we’ve got two on the positive side one on the negative side and we’ve got this little resistor here so when we first press the start button with the brakes that we’re now going towards red light if you’ve ever driven it like this you notice the red light takes a little while for it to come on what’s actually happening is we’re going through what’s called a pre charge relay the free time relay is its loading without the vehicle to build up their current slowly there’s another couple of reasons for that I’ll just continue here so now that that happened first one first condition a few condition of the men if then weapons the main demand you see there’s no resistance there now so now with were available for full current to be available at in birth so that’s important if we see here now you will have either a short circuit and examples inside the air conditioning compressor there’s a short that you’ve just replaced it for you or sometimes even use air conditioning compressor onto the vehicle if there’s something wrong with that so we’ve heard a short-circuit within the air compressor or Indy inverter then what’s going to happen without this relay we’re going to get full power going to the short circuit we know that when we had a short circuit without any resistance we’re going to get full current that’s available from the battery going through that circuit and that’s going to create a pretty massive damage milk all of the cable all the wires destroy the system so that’s why we use this creature grill and it also allows the capacitors inside the inverters to slowly be like they can really suck in a lot of power all at once so what happens here if the system realizes the fault it won’t shine on the same relay and like persons over to the shutdown system are recognizing a pole so in recognize that also to alert the current census now some of the conditions that need to have is when this the relays are open when they mention it off so that meant that the battery’s disconnected the battery disconnect these relation should be open if the airbags have been deployed the system will open relays as well to you if you if you dis make one of the airbag connectors on one of these people’s the system will shut down so you need to have a scan tool and actually remove those codes before the vehicle can be started again if the interlock has been interrupted that will also shut down the vehicle to open the contactors and if there’s certain parts of an advantage system so only when that interlock is complete when the ignition is on and the hydraulic systems fall free is when it will close all of those relays okay so I’m coming down now to some of the power electronics is really where the technology comes in for electric propelled vehicles so it’s basically a few idea to have some of the different parts that you have any have these new classrooms well service this part is getting easier and easier to access [Music] basically the vehicles become cheaper and cheaper so you can have vehicle native Rep that have it in your classroom pull it apart have the various components you can ask manufacturers you might get some stuff donated so having all of this on hand is also it’s always good to have it so cables within our voyage come in two different types so you can have a employed cable which has just one cable so to speak within the the whole Kandra and that is certain instance one of the fastest and most you also get here this is multiple core kale so you might have for instance what I’ve spoken before about the air conditioning compressor all through faith is my inside one cable you might have also the battery cable coming from country you might have a positive and native in one cable as well it’s also very important to know that the shooing inside around each of these cables as well sort of showing on this certain playground on the venue thoughts that to ground a net stop any electromagnetic interference now electric motors so we’re showing here how we get an electric motor to turn so we’ve all heard about the three-phase motors and basically we were using electromagnetism to create a magnetic field which allows the magnetic fields rotated once we’ve got that rotating magnetic field that will through various means if we’ve got a permanent magnet versa or if we’ve got a induction motor well then although that may many people around so you see here one phase what happens when we change direction current so anything we consider the magnetic building is a pull drawn towards the coils or push away and what a blending those three together we can then see this rotating magnetic field once combined with the Rosa we can then create this fuel to turn around and turn the rotor now various parts as I said before coated mecha also called a synchronous motor the type with permanent maintenance a living magnets inside the road is named it’s created in northern South Poles and that’s that poverty magnetic field that’s relatively easy to understand when you see a motor like this we can show it what I meant here we have a 3-phase with the various coils that are made around that that stator as you can see how they work together all those three phases work together just like that now what’s a little bit harder to understand is in induction motor so they don’t have any permanent magnets inside sometimes also for squirrel-cage basically what we’re doing is we’re creating another true nation within the rotor so the rotor has called bars going through the rotor and a short circuited on each end of the rotor here so as we create the magnetic field in three coils around in the stator that creates what induces a current inside the right understanding turn creates a magnetic field inside the rotor once those two magnetic fields correlate the rotor will begin to turn as well one of the very important things it’s very important to understand how the magnetic view so how the motor will turn around so it’s very important that the the inverter inside the and exactly where the rotor is and so for that we need a real position sensor sensor they also pull a resolver so the resolver is May of treatment coils and we can see here that as the rotor turns around creating an induced voltage which then will create two separate waveforms in the two watching and quote of the surrounding the resolver so it’s made of these three different say coastlines and science and depending on where the resolver is whether the rotary standing ground and the inverted consent exactly where the racer with the inverted consent exactly where the resolver the inverter can sense exactly where the worse that is and so I can turn on each of the various ages because evidently if that is a result over there and the motor or that inverter didn’t know exactly where the road was once you turn the engine on it wouldn’t know and it is possible that there the engine the motor could start turning so it’s very important that is there it’s not an input and input as a whole sensor and aneisa start turning to the to establish the position this will work when the motor is is not saying whatsoever okay we’ll say which regenerative reading so he was the current plan and it connected to the battery itself and we can see a Pacers are driving forward we continue matter current flowing out so here we’ve got 25 feet up to 50 amps flowing to the to the battery out to the motor now we’re in the negative phase so you can see it’s instantly going back that’s regenerating and now we’ve got 23 and going backwards into the to the bathroom so it changes quite a lot anyone how much acceleration to put in so then we set about 90 amps and the maximum going backwards is about 60 amps back into the bathroom that’s all from regeneration now one of the main questions is how do we get so we need to create an AC sine wave for the to create the three phases but how do we do that when we’re going to get a DC power supply so if you were seeing in simplified version of the inverter signal and we can see the average of this pulse width modulated signal is the the voltage so that will affect the amount of current flowing through that circuit we can see that the sine wave is being created there now that’s easy now but we’ve only got a DC power supply so we also need to find out how can we create a negative source from a DC supply so over here is very simplified circuit this resistor is simulating a motor so the motor is a has windings which have a resistance we can see here so the power supply we’ve got a current flow flowing around in this circuit now if you go on the bottom side of this circuit now we’re opening switch number two is placed switch number one we can see that the current obviously still flows in the same direction but now the resistor that the top and circuit has opposed to the bottom and what that does is we can see the effect here on the oscilloscope and now we’re creating a negative voltage display switching those top and bottom switches so what that effectively means is this year so the current flowing through and os+ through two phases at the same time so two windings so we’ve got the DC positive at the top year coming through this IEP team through one of the phases bowed out and further depending on which of these ITV T’s is being switched and this infant living switched on and off to create the digital sine wave here and we see there now it’s which direction so before this one now we’ll switch to this one here and still going through the same to faith but it’s just in a different direction and you can see there now we’re getting about switching between positive and negative the time that those eyes even even switched on is the Americana procedure it now what that super simplified that’s carrying around about in between eight eight thousand times per seconds and sixteen thousand points per second this switching is occurring so it’s extremely fast now what that looks like on a real vehicle so this is taking off of the inverter signal from a twelve Prius so you can see here now that as I said extremely fast it’s read about eight thousand times per second we’ve got two hundred volts per division here so two hundred volts is there that’s 400 600 800 volts so as the vehicle drive the line so unfortunately it’s been shaken here if you can see now I’ve got this this block so that the digital switching transistors being switched on and off and it’s a bit hard to tell because of the speed of the system but the pulse width of the earth is changing so now we’re going to see that AC so who is measure the current on this oscilloscope movie obviously the current so men are important resistor we will see the current flowing going through there and you can see that varies quite a lot from 200 volts here up to 700 volts what what is happening there is we see frequency is obviously related to speed the faster that frequency is occurring the fire of the motor is turning the amplitude however is create is controlling the amount torque that is required so the amount of torque through acceleration more torque is required more amplitude to more bodies to put more current to create a bigger magnetic field that’s what we see they’re not running from earlier I said that it’s not a simple two hundred volt battery 600 volt output is very all of the timing between those two values some of the competitors that we spoke about before sometimes they’re quite obvious in the inverter if you have a look system that oppresses they were right here inside of Shiva the inverter one of the newer ones you can’t see where they are the hidden so they’re basically in this unit here we’ve got this x-ray that you can see inside the there’s three passes here and special ones on the side they can be discharged through active or passive means so active discharges when we can see that here this section here is the resistor being turned on the first so the very first one when we’ve got the resistor in mind you can see it’s very slow very slow that means it is a ramp-up fury here that’s going through the resistor right here there’s a tiny little switch that’s the second relay being turned on I will see right here that’s the the vehicle being switched up again and there’s a little step occurring right here what that is is the inverter actually discharging through two of the windings in the motor to discharge all the built-up voltage within the system it’s called active discharge and some of the older vehicles have a full passive discharge is just through a resistor in the system okay so some of the measurements that we can take them to you here to show some of those theories and that we just have a look at we’ve got all of the measurement devices built in here and we can take some of the different measurements from each of these ms1 points you so for instance if we’re looking at motor generated sooo we can have a look at for instance the the motor generator being driven or unit really moderate but if you see the song way but this as it’s freewheeling so I’ve been driven by the first turn a motor gear you can tell that that permanent magnet motor if we have looked at the so we can see here also battery voltage of the or each division here at 100 so that’s around about 45 to 50 volts per tape at the top you can see here over 300 volts so this system has the buck boost converter invading it convenience Eliassen so one of the other things that we can have look at the charging of the systems as well so what is the communication within the vehicle and the supply equipment so look at this system here to show how to do from any charge so we can see here the number of conditions in depending on what type of connector you have so if you’ve got type 1 connector or the type 2 connector depending on how fish basically which country you from there’s different types of think you need because the part of one character that you see here as a switch there’s no need to lock the vehicle but in a lot of European countries you can see that there is no switch on the connector so basically if there was no switch you could pull it out so the system is now locked in so it happens when I turn the vehicle off and even lock the vehicle once that can done what those conditions are met the system is locked in there with the type 1 connector this actually is a switch inside so when I press the switch to undo the mechanical lock it also shuts the charging lock so there’s no need to lock the vehicle in this instance but is that to show some of the communication that you carry so here we see the pulse width modulated signal that the car is reading and this is what the the vehicle is written so we’re seeing here bipolars on both sides within the vehicle as though that is the same signal that is being rectified so we’re seeing this year now this is this various means of what is this actual signal is telling it so on one side is the pulse with the adaption how long the dream cycle and also the voltage varies as well so 12 volts 9 volts and six volts depending on the condition if the vehicles ready to start also the amount of duty cycle telling the the vehicles telling the supply equipment how much what is the maximum charge you can take at that point okay so there’s a lot that can be shine can spend hours and hours going through this is roughly about 20 hours of curriculum courseware that we have here obviously any of that sort of clients I just wanted to show you some of the things that are available some of the things that you can do in the classroom of course this is not replacing your vehicle this is just to help and by the students along as well so we have the African vehicles in the classroom and in the workshop yeah so again if you’d like some more information put on your email address and we’ll get some more information out to say thanks very much for your time appreciate it and all of this thanks


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