How Turbochargers Work

How Turbochargers Work


So this video is going to inform you of how a turbo charger works
and the components needed for a turbocharger system
So…here’s what happens
Now, we know in our engine cycle that at the end we’re going to force out exhaust gases
So these exhaust gases are fed out through some piping into this turbine called a turbocharger
Which what happens here is that these exhaust gases spin the turbine, and this turbine is connected
by a shaft…(we can represent that right here) connected to another turbine which is sucking in outside air as it spins
this outside air is forced in and it’s going to be pressurized now
so it’s not just atmospheric pressure that you’re putting into the engine, you’re forcing in more air. So we call that boost
so this air is forced in, now what happens when you’re forcing in a greater amount of air is when you add pressure, you also add heat
and you don’t want to add already hot air into the engine, so you’re gonna pass this air through an intercooler.
now, this is just a bunch of coils, some of them use a liquid system, but most of them are air-based and it’ll pass through some coils
and that will cool down the air.
this cool air, then travels through the intake manifold and that will come into your engine chamber
now, there are some things that people have added in to make this more feasible
so we’ve got two things here now, the Blow-Off Valve, and we’ve got a wastegate
now, when you have exhaust gases coming through, and you don’t want to reach, say–8psi–so you set a limit on your wastegate
at 8psi, and what happens when this turbine spinning here realizes that the air sucking in is going to be forced in at 8psi
it’ll open up this wastegate this wastegate will allow this air that’s going into the exhaust turbine to feed out through the exhaust
instead of creating more boost. So that helps on this side
now, on the other hand every time you let go of the ignition, you’re going to have boost inside of this intake
manifold that you can’t use. So what happens is you’ll shut off the throttle, this intake valve will close,
and you’ve got all this pressurized air that’s wanting to go into this cylinder
so because it’s got no where to go, you get a Blow-Off valve which will let that air escape.
Now how this works is
once you get to the PSI that you set at, say you’ll have a spring that at 6psi, it’ll let air out.
so you’re revving up high in your car, you let go of the gas, and this throttle plate closes, and then all this air is being forced
into here and it reaches 6 psi, well this spring lifts up and it lets the air out
and you’ll hear a hissing sound, that’s what that is when you let off the throttle plate is this Blow-Off valve letting out air
so, those are the main four components. You’ve got the turbocharger which consists of the two turbines, used to force in air, you’ve got the intercooler which
cools the air going into the engine, you’ve got wastegate that lets exhaust gases escape if you’ve reached a high enough boost already, and you’ve got the blow-off valve for when you
let go of the gas the air has somewhere to go, and those are the four main components
of a turbocharger


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