Current and Future Application of Powder Metallurgical Materials in the Automotive Industry

Current and Future Application of Powder Metallurgical Materials in the Automotive Industry


Oliver Charlotte I majored in mechanical engineering and received his master’s degree in material sciences from the University boham and his PhD from Technical University humble cow book on the fatigue behavior of a high temperature titanium alloy dr. shorty the stage is yours [Applause] Thank You mr. Craig agree for this kind introduction ladies and gentlemen it’s a great honor for me you have the chance today to talk to you about our research activities as folks learn in material sciences but especially sure about the applications of powder metallurgy today and hopefully also very much in future as I think many of you are aware in many fields automotive industry has been a driving force driver for materials innovations in many aspects don’t think only about materials innovations in case of new Steel’s in the body and white or for new aluminum alloys for engine blocks but there’s also many little things you are not aware of that have been very much driven also throughout emotive industry like transparent coatings on functional layers like the alternative drive trains where we need a lot of material innovations for both for fuel cells Drive friends but also for electrical drive trains it’s the functional materials ensure it’s the lightweight design is a lightweight technologies that we have four new high-strength Steel’s for advanced aluminum alloys and other materials just an example that has nothing to do with powder metallurgy but for example we are more and more introducing hot forming technologies and hot form steers with high strengths up to more than 2,000 MPA and these Steel’s that you are using as the outer shell of the car for the body and wider also coated they’re coated with a pint they are poured over the paint with a primer filler base coat and so on and the complete coating has just the thickness of a human hair so the introductory the the technology development and these times have been very very very very progressive now also give me a chance to do a little bit showing off I am working for other folks wagon group Volkswagen group is one of the largest car manufacturers in the world we are having we are producing in hi not 9 we are we have about 600,000 employees and we have a hundred 19 production sites worldwide most of them producing cars many of them also just producing automotive components the number you should keep a little bit in mind is that we are manufacturing more than 38,000 cars per hour working day and each one containing or dermatological components for those who are not that familiar with automotive industry for extract group is not only consist akan consisting of the brand focused and let’s say it contains also the lot of the high-volume car manufacturers OD scooter from Czech Republic and CR from Spain and then also the sports coming if lecturers Porsche Bentley Lamborghini and Bugatti the Italian motorcycle brand Ducati and on the commercial business we have the small commercial cars at folks large commercials for travel spots oil and the heavy trucks and passes it scania from sweden and from ma n but i think many of you will not know but m is not only a manufacturer of buses and trucks but it’s also the largest manufacturer of stationary power units and especially of ship engines now I myself I’m responsible for material switchers and manufacturing processes it folks like group research for extract group research is based in voicework and has about 600 researchers based there and it’s financed by and working for all the 12 brands of the folks wagon group we have also some affiliates most important I think it’s the focus of an electronic research lab that we have in Palo Alto right in the center right in the heart of the Silicon Valley for new electronic trends and we have also additional officers for new materials especially for new drive concepts here in Canada and then the general investigation office in Shanghai in China and the small office it to you in Tokyo now let’s talk about material sciences where what we are working on and this was a little bit surprised for us that we realized when we when we were preparing this presentation for the world part of metallurgical conference that we worked relatively little on parametrically nearly nothing because all the components you are working for and the components you are making the anomaly’s supplied to a supplier who supplies it to another supplier on finally supplies to us the complete the complete assembly for the permit for putting it into the car so we see we thought that we have to deal definitely more with powder metallurgy however we are working actually I think as a metallurgist steel in general is one of the most exciting materials still and still one of the most promising materials and I would predict that even in 20 years 95% of the cars will be mainly made of steel so we have to definitely to deal with new steel developments we also work on light methods more on magnesium actually a magnesium sheet material less on aluminium but this is because I look Howdy’s also have still a cent of excellence for aluminum making aluminum components and we work also a little bit on titanium on the polymers we work with plastics mainly for for low volume investments for low volume for for low cost investments for high volume production to simplify just the assemblies to bring together several parts in one single assembly in one manual manufacturing step and we are also working on fiber reinforced plastics and through also on joining technology and on functional materials now how do we work in the past it was more a kind of a knowledge-based knowledge-based develop on experience based material development today we are coming more and more to a data-based material development we must become faster in material development processes for automotive production it is not accepted that we need 10 to 15 years to develop new material and then another 10 years to bring this material into into our cars to avoid to speed-up in this development we are working more and wor with simulation methods not only on complete components but only on the manufacturing processes like a directing simulation for fiber reinforced plastics or in casting simulations we try to predict the materials behavior behavior and microstructure simulations in the directly in the development of the material and sure we are also working on today we are also working since a few years on phantom simulations so we go in the SAP atomistic level now why a little bit surprising maybe is an automaker working with quantum mechanics the simple explanation is that we are that the quantum mechanics describe all the material properties if you have understood how it was understood how atoms and nuclei interact with each other and with the atoms in their neighborhood you can predict the materials behavior absolutely every aspect but this needs a lot of a lot of computer power and the programs are relatively new however we try to to increase the speed in material development more unfunctional material but beginning also regarding structural materials to predict these material behaviors when to speed up material development processes now let’s talk about a little bit more powder metallurgy it’s reason why I’m here I don’t think that this is the right place that I tell you what powder metallurgy is used for however a short view where do we find the most of the powder metallurgical applications it’s in the drivetrain for connecting revive control in the fuel and actuators you find actuators you have part in the gearbox and you find sure also five parts in the brake system and for example in the seat adjustment what kinds of technologies are used for this because this is quite well known for you first of all and I think for most of these applications we have to talk about sorry like we have to talk about powder mat the classic of powdered military so compressing and sintering technology as used for engine parts brake system and so on and the future probably also for fuels components or for electrical engines more and more important became in the last 20 years metal injection molding processes for it to be geometrically complex components such as a table a charger here often not considered as the use of powder metallurgy for coatings so for we are resistant for to improve wear resistance or to apply protective coatings coatings for thermal for thermal protection and now as mentioned also some other by the other speakers it’s the additive manufacturing technology to integrate functions and to have the chance to make a component without any tooling costs directly made to the fitting shape to the necessary shape again back to the typical powder metallurgical components we see that if you look the the word market on autumn on powder metallurgical classic components that have more than 70% are made for automotive applications and that we find them more application even for industrial engines and for work tools for tools we like it because it has a very competitive price and because it is it has a very good material yield and finally you make the parts with a very good and constant quality right to the necessary shape final shape another big field of the metal injection molding is here I have here some samples that that you can use like adjustment rings for turbochargers like locking systems in the it is used in there in the roof mechanism of a convertible millions of them hundred thousands of other of them are made and even millions many many millions are made just for the for the role leave us in a device chronic system so in the wife train control or Indians a seat adjustment we get a very high surface quality and we have a high diversity of materials and we can make a very complicated geometry bring directly to the path size with a high dimensional accuracy now these are the classical technologies that are used in in our caste and that would always be used in our past but as a materials research looking for what would go be happening in the future we should also look for the new processes as a material research we are mainly interested by the way for those technologies and materials which we expect that could be come to production enough timeframe between five and ten years approximately in our medicine some of the speakers mentioned or already mentioned the additive manufacturing the metal additive manufacturing interesting but don’t think always just buy about metal printing 3d printing by buying a 3d printer and make a component directly why not thinking about components that you can’t completely manufacture in a forging technology or in a casting process but you can make the base component and bring it to a 3d printer and then just apply the components or the part of the component that you can’t manufacture with a classical manufacturing process this is what we would call the hybrid manufacture and so you combine different the manufacturing process when five when five dimensional machining of bulk material was invented nobody got the idea to make the complete car from a Murphy me from a machine shop that’s the same on 3d printing you don’t have to make the complete graph on 3d printing but you have to use 3d printing where it is really useful useful it’s also in the case of repair and spare parts if repair part one’s out of stock it’s interesting to make them instead of investing in new tools or to repair the oil tools to make the peanuts directly from 3d printing this is both for Boromir 3d printing of a metal 3d printing the super sports cars but also low low volume cars as you find them sometimes and track or bust business could be made easily or individualized pies by 3d printing and finally it’s also a chance to functionalize material could even print sensors or you can print materials that contain the sensor already inside or you can make even new materials by 3d printing so it’s a very very there’s a very very promising future for this technology how we do we deal with the problem we have one big problem in 3d printing today and we’ve metal 3d printing and now just look at the actual scientific work we are doing at 4x van this was the typical powder we are we are facing when we have to make powder components so you see here it’s about 10 microns the particle is about 10 microns thickness they have to be spherical they have to be have to have a very homogeneous shape it just sighs it’s abortion between 20 and 60 3 micron and so you have already in the atomizing processes a number of magnifica material loss this whole thing in compared to if you just compare to classical sintering processes or press process as you have in green party where you just accept also spherical part where you accept arts with a complicated shape which are flaky which have dendrites and you even are happy if they have an irregular shape so that they very good stick together in the compressing process the high demands for the power of use for three metal rewriting that we have a smooth service in the 3d printer that we have a continuous production process in each layer that we have exactly the same shape in the melted the molten region region but this resides and prices between 80 and hundred and twenty euros per kilogram powder for standard time to steel like a 120 709 so this is a price level that we can’t you with today so we have to think how we can reduce the costs for powder metallurgy in order for automotive applications our approach here is in a first steps wasn’t first step that we simply accept instead of the very very homogeneous powder that we also accept powder particles with an irregular shape that we accept also powders that ever smaller than that a smaller power of particles which are smaller than 20 micron and then by adjusting the the parameters on the 3d printer we have been able to create also from this powder good material specimens with the youth strengths which is exploit approximately on the same level then we find it standard powder and for the next steps we think about using the property of demise powders for example we have even a higher grain distribution we have better printers and we have a pre a large powders or we even modify the powders and use more hitter gene heterogeneous powders please also think about having in a printer in different positions different powder blends or different powder distribution so that you can be that you can change the or influence the properties of the within one single components by changing just the alloying elements in the powder now coming to the sect second important driver for automotive industry today automotive industry we are facing very much we are in a tremendous change in automotive industry it’s written by the autonomous driving is driven by new mobility concepts like uber like car sharing and so on and finally it’s it’s very much driven and this is important for us by new drive trains if you look for example what we have to expect already in 2020 the the the limitations the the the challenges and the limitations by by law in the different countries will be very very hard and there will be much harder in 2025 and to be honest to reach these limits for a feminism and limousine is with the classical internal-combustion and nearly impossible so we are forced by law to apply additional alternative drive drive trends either electoral drive trains or fuels drive trains and if you have seen the news on the weekend there are a number of politicians who intend or would like to give a ban on internal combustion engine cars from 2030 totally I am and I think I don’t think they know what they thought about but I definitely didn’t think very much about drops however this will meet that this is a kind of an average prediction of different scenarios that this line would even shift up to here so in the middle of 2020s on a 2030s we have will face situation that thirty to fifty percent of the cars will ever either have range-extended electric vehicle or will be a battery electric vehicle or very a fuel cell electric vehicle and this will change dramatically also the situation for the supplier industry not only for us and the questioners will be possible to have all the electrical vehicles available for the commercial and customers and yes battery technology it saves itself is doing very good progress so we think that we will be in the in the middle of the of the two until 2020 you will have six hundred fifty kilowatt per litre battery power so we have a range for a standard vehicle of nearly 500 kilometers and new concepts like solid-state batteries were probably also allowed to go to 700 kilometer range in the late in the middle of the 2020 so the progress the battery development is doing although you don’t realize it directly on the market or in the available what you can directly buy but the progress is very very very very fast please think when we think about a car cycle we think about a development side of time of five four to five years and then we would like to use such a car technology eight or even ten years and if you then talk about 2025 it’s tomorrow it’s today yesterday today is the day where we have to talk about these technologies and to make the decisions what’s the strategic decisions now coming back to powder metallurgy what does power and what does all this mean to power up energy metal as we have seen how many cars we make a day and we have seen the seventy percent of the of the powered arm eight hundred mythological parts you are manufacturing or we are manufacturing I used an automotive industry and most of them in classical internal combustion engine or gearbox this business will definitely shrink so we have to see together see that we find new applications that we find new ideas for powder metallurgy in automotive industry typical applications could be the fuel cell system that could be the hydrant storage not not the tank itself but a lot of valve units will we will be highly stressed in use and could be made in powder metallurgy we have to see about the battery system itself I will later talk about ensure the electrical engines themselves contain powder metallurgy powder metallurgical parts just as an examples is typical electrical drivetrain and if you have the rotor here already today made of a power in powder metallurgy from neodymium-iron-boron magnets near diem and born magnets are the most still the most powerful magnets that have used or let’s better say instead of neodymium rare-earth the problem is that the prices for neodymium are changing very much rare-earth only a few countries in the world have the rare earth market under control so it for the automotive industry and for our supply as it could be from a strategic point of view it can be very interesting to have different high heavy rare earth materials like dysprosium or the Travian available that could replace medium in our heart magnet system and then also soft maggots it was already mentioned it’s today most of the soft maggots are simply soft magnetic shield a sheet that is used for example for the rotors in electrical engines but in the future we will also think about having composite soft magnetic composites so powder metallurgical soft magnetic anisotropic material is compressed with a polymeric binder in an inappropriate shape so that we can pick the profited price precisely into the electrical engine and could do its work there and then finally also a bleak view in the future a little bit more complicated if you think about lithium ion batteries for the cathode we need a blend a powder metallurgical plant consisting of nickel manganese and cobalt or on nickel aluminum and cobalt and these how does have to be mixed in a certain way because the problem is that nickel is a from the electrical point of view from the charging point of view nickel is the best materials has the highest loading capacity but it also has the highest risk to burn so in case of accident if Saturn lithium-ion battery burns you can’t stop it burning it will produce its own oxygen it simply doesn’t stop to avoid this which was a safety reason has for further I think from for most others also has the highest importance you would use the electrical capacity of these materials by applying manganese and coal button so to overcome this problem one approach for the future completely new powders you see here with the power of particle it’s a so-called coercion material so on the outer side of these cores you have a nickel rich layer to have the electrical activity but to provide safety you want to reduce the volume you want to it will use the share of nickel and this you achieve by having a core that contains more manganese and cool but this is a high-tech powder developed for the future and I think maybe also a nice idea how powder metallurgy can become more scientific and can be productive and contribute to the immobility of the future and so that’s already nearly the end of my presentation I am happy to sum up a little bit so until today the majority of the powder metallurgical manufacture parts are produced for the power for the automotive sector and this all will also be done in future powder metallurgical parts stay remain one of the important drivers for highly stressed components for where we are stressed permanent but we have to face the fact that the classical combustion engine and gearbox will sooner or later hopefully a little bit later come to its end and so we have to think about alternatives for powder metallurgy in automotive production such as selective laser melting sort of 3d printing or the new electrical drive trends with a number of applications and finally I would like to thank you to come together here in Hamburg and to discuss all these options and and also to invite you to talk to us to the automotive industry to Forex run so that we together find solutions and that together new perspectives for powder metallurgy and for your business also within the automotive industry thank you very much [Applause]


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