Automotive Engineering Crash Course Part – 6 | Steering & Suspension

Automotive Engineering Crash Course Part – 6 | Steering & Suspension


the Ackermann steering designed in the eighteen hundred’s by Rudolph Ackerman and a sitting used today it allows the air tour front way to torn in a white or seracote than the inside we the steering wheel is connected to the rack and pinion which moves the wheels via the track rods the track rod is connected to the B with the steering arm a steering mechanism should be precise provide feedback from the road and should have a tendency to return to the straight-ahead position after a torn caster is the angle between a line extending through the steering pivot axis and a vertical line through the center of the lead when the steering pivot axis meets the road in front of the B contact point it will result in an inbuilt tendency to travel in a straight line with a tea trolley queens always follow the direction in which the trolleys caution most carriage a positive caster when viewed from the front the tilt of a wheel is called Campbell if the wheels lean out at the top that is called positive camber but negative camber the bottom of the tire is further out on the top this helps to improve cornering ability strawberryk cess is the distance between the Syrian axis rogue contact pint and the centre of the wing when both meet at the same axis it is called zero zero when the steering axis pint is towards the inside of the wheel it is called positive scrub radius braking portion this way you will tend to torn at Hogwarts and the steering axis pint is towards the outside of the wheel it is called negative scrub radius braking portion this way will tend to turn it in ideally when a car is cruising on a straight road the front wheels should be parallel with toe in the front of the wheels are set slightly towards each other this is normally used on about the drive Cara when the back wheels drive the car the front wheels will tend to splay out or straighten as a nice slack in the steering system mistake you know with a front-wheel drive car the wheels are set to tow out in the engine drives the front wheels it will tend to call in and straighten the wheels correct wheel alignment ensures better fuel economy tires will last longer and safer motoring with a hydraulic power steering the hydraulic pump is driven by the engine and the power steering oil is directed to the actuator theater over a control valve and hoses and the steering is at rest the fluid exerts an equal pressure on both sides of the piston and the steering wheel is turned a torsion bar connected to a rover about the very small ie to one side of the piston providing assistance in that direction airlie power steering systems were built driven part were belt driven by the engine with the pump speed proportional to engine speed often this results in the high palm speed and it is not required it also reduces the power available for the driven wheels with an electro-hydraulic system an electrical motor is used to drive the hydraulic pump and the pump is not required the motor is switched off saving power consumption another solution is a complete electric power assist system electric power steering EPS uses an electric motor to provide assistance at low speed when the steering wheel is turned it provides variable assist depending on vehicle speed max assistance when stationary and no assist at high speed since it only takes power from the battery when required it will help improve fuel economy a rotation and torque sensor measure the rotation of the steering wheel and forward this data to the ECU this information together with Road speed determines the amount of assistance provided on modern carriage the motor is usually connected directly to the steering column this speed sensitive electric system is also lighter and cheaper than the hydraulic equivalent oversee record from the back of the car swings out when coronary and can result in loss of control it is protected by reducing the steering angle on the steering the cars from the front of the car sits out Oren’s worried a small amount of understeer is nour design and oversteer Kyle Springs store and absorb shark energy by compressing and extending when the wheel is pushed upwards by the pump the spring prevents the shark from reaching the chasis an intense attire in contact with roll a damper converts the oscillations of the spring to thermal energy the damper is filled with ie then the carer hits a bomb the Isle is forced through a small orifice those slowing down and damping the movement of the piston the suspension consists of Springs linkages and dampers and connects the car with the road surface through the wheels and tires it provides comfort for the occupants and heads maintain the wheels in good contact with road provide interaction maintaining stability and reducing stopping distance a twin tube damper has an inner and outer tube the piston moves in the inner tube and it radically reduces days to the arrow tube there is a restricted flow through the orifice slows down and controls the movement of the piston compressed air or nitrogen allows for the additional volume taken by the piston rod as it enters the cylinder a dead axle is not part of the drivetrain the wings are attached to it and it supports the weight of the vehicle a live axle also drives the wheels and includes the differential leaf springs are made from layers of spring steel and are generally used on trucks the panhard rod is allowed to give it at both ends one end is attached to the car structure on the O go to the axle as the axle moves up and down the panhard rod prevents lateral movement they are common on trucks with an independent grouse pension there is no axle between the wheels the wheels can move independently of each other examples include trailing and semi-trailing arm with the trailing arm each rear wheel is supported by an arm hinge to the structure of the car there is no change in cameras the wheel moves up and with semi-trailing arm the mounting pint of the carrot structure is upset at an angle this allows the designer Authority alignment and camber as the wave travels over bonds Ananse unsprung mass or unsprung weight is the mass of suspension components attached to the wheels ideally the unsprung mass should be as small as possible compared to the sprung wrinkle mass a dead axle or rigid beam axle uses a single piece of metal sprung beneath the vehicle which the wheels are attached to it has hay unsprung weight also the up and down movement of one we will also affect the other side reducing comfort for the occupants however they are strong and good load bearing capacity suitable for trucks with an independent suspension each wheel is connected by its own linkage and its movement does not affect the other wheel an independent suspension has less unsprung weight and allows the wheels to move independently of each other a double wishbone suspension has to wishbone shaped links attached to the Carole at the wide end and the narrow end is connected to swivel members which have the stub axle and wheel the spring and damper are located between the lower member of the Cara structure in most cars the wishbones are not of equal length or parallel this system is expensive to manufacture but gives good stability to the wheel they are often used on racing cars the wishbones can be designed to alter the camber of the peel as the suspension is deflected negative camber provides better stability as the carer coroners the McPherson strut has a telescopic rod anchored at the top of Pi a flexible rubber mounting the top mounting includes a bearing which allows the complete stroke to swivel and steer the car the transverse link is connected to the strut with ball joint to absorb road sharks a coil spring surrounds this the child so contained the damper the McPherson strut is mechanically simple he’s of glass glass allows more space of the engine and occupancy it also has no one’s wrong way they require considerable vertical height and the body has to be strong or the straw is attached a CV joint or constant velocity joint allows connection from the drive shaft to the wheel it allows movement in our directions and is covered by a rubber boot to prevent ingress of Doherty when a carer corners the body tends to roller sway in this demo we have omitted the springs and dampers for clarity an anti-roll bar sway bar or torsion bar connects left and right side suspension to each other as the suspension is compressed on one side it exerts the twisting force on the torsion bar transferring some of the load to the other wheel producing body roll most carriage of a front anti-roll bar when sports carriage may have one front and back obviously obviously if both sides of the suspension are connected together we no longer have an independent system a stiff barrel reduces body roll but too stiff can limit the operation of the independent suspension and cause the inside tire to lift up a compromise is required we hope you learned from automotive appreciation


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